It is important to know about the possible causes of power failure in order to better protect ourselves from its devastating effects. Once we have identified all that can possibly go wrong, it is easier to ensure that adequate safeguards are put into place. Here are a few of some of the obvious, and some not so obvious, causes of power failure:
- Natural Causes :
Various power failures are caused by the natural things like lightening, rain, snow, ice, wind, and even dust. The damage caused due to water (flood) in electrical circuits can be very expensive so it makes sense to ensure that you are well protected from it. Electrical switchboards, wires, and circuits should be protected from exposure to water
- Frequency Mismatch:
we know that all the synchronous generator which is used to generate power runs at synchronous speed that is they all have the same frequency. Due to some faults occur in the transmission line , the frequency mismatches and the system will go in to the dynamic i.e. it will either accelerate or decelerate. If fault is not clear in permissible time then the system will go in to the unstable state which leads to failure of power.
- Power mismatch:
sometimes there is mismatch of generating power and the power taken by the load center which again results in to the dynamic . you can understand it by studying about swing equation.
- Three Phase Fault:
Generally the faults are divided in to two categories: one is symmetrical and another is unsymmetrical fault (L-L,L-G, L-L-G). Due to breaking of the wire or due to short circuit between these wire the fault occurs which leads to sudden increase in current and therefore POWER SURGES (Power surges are the bane of any electrical system which can lead to rapid overheating and loss of critical and expensive equipment). so due to over current in the line speed of the synchronous machine decreases and system will go in to the dynamic again. If we cannot clear this fault in less than 1000 milliseconds then it leads to GRID FAILURE.
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